August 9th, 2008
08:24 PM ET

T.D. Jakes: How do you respond to “I don’t want to get blacker, Daddy!”

Program Note: In the next installment of CNN's Black in America series, Soledad O'Brien examines the successes, struggles and complex issues faced by black men, women and families, 40 years after the death of the Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Watch encore presentation Saturday & Sunday, 8 p.m. ET

We devote several days on the blog to smart insight and commentary related to the special.


[cnn-photo-caption image=http://i2.cdn.turner.com/cnn/2008/images/07/23/art.bia.jakes2.jpg]
Bishop T.D. Jakes
Senior Pastor, The Potter’s House

I am delighted to see a continued rational discussion about race relations in this country. I know many find it painful and some would rather not discuss it at all. But like a good marriage, sometimes communication is the only way to create unification. Therefore, I applaud CNN for having the foresight to lead a discussion that hopefully will produce more love and a shared concern for people you see every day but might not know what they see when they live in the same world and breathe the same air that you do.

Often I pen words as a pastor, sometimes as an entrepreneur, and occasionally as a citizen with an opinion. But today, I have been asked to share a story as a father, and a person of color, who knows firsthand the challenges of raising children of color. I love this country and I am very proud to be an American. In spite of its many challenges and disappointments, I fervently believe that the benefits of living in the United States ultimately outweigh the liabilities.. But in the interest of sharing a “what is it like to be you” story, I will add this one to the discussion. To be sure, we are not all monolithic. Many, many, blacks have raised their children surrounded by masses of blacks and have faced a different challenge than mine.

I have twin boys who are almost 30 years old now. But when they were very young, I was sitting with both of them in the predominantly white environment of my home in West Virginia talking about things fathers discuss with their sons. I shared with one of my sons, that when I was his age my skin tone was very much like his, very light. In a matter of fact way, I mentioned that as I got older, my skin darkened and changed to become much more like his brother’s skin, which was darker.

My son, whose skin tone was lighter, began to cry profusely. I was befuddled by his reaction, but when your 7-year-old is crying without a reason and you love him, you investigate it immediately! So I asked him why he was crying. He blurted out, “I don’t want to get blacker, Daddy!” He looked at me in total anguish and said something that left me astounded. He said, “Because if you are black they hate you more.” He cried so hard that I took him in my arms so that he couldn’t see that I too was shedding a tear or two, myself. I was hurt for both of my sons, and I was hurt with them.

I was stunned. How could I have let myself be so busy trying to provide for my family, that I didn’t realize how I had not equipped them for the harsh realities of a world that can at times be both cold and unwelcoming to those who are outside of our “norm?” Do not misunderstand me, I know all too well from my own experiences, how things can be when you are a minority in a majority world. But what I didn’t know, was that this 7-year-old had encountered this level of anguish at such an early age, and that he had resolved in his own way that if he could avoid getting any blacker he might not have to feel the painful consequences of looking different. I doubt that it was overt racism, no sheets draped over the heads of the KKK, or Rodney King style beat downs in the back of the school. No, these were tears running down the face of a child who had been victimized by subtle covert racist distinctions right in front of my face and I didn’t even know it was happening in his world.

I sat on the floor holding two weeping children as my wife and I began to explain what a gift it is to be yourself, and to love who you are and how you are made. I told them how wonderfully God has created them in the skin they were in! It led to one of the richest, most rewarding discussions of my children’s lives and they still refer to it to this day!

It was then that it became crystal clear the importance of teaching our children the value of being African American and the value of their own self-worth. Sadly when one speaks of this teaching – African Americans to love themselves, their community or accomplishments, many outside of the realities of our life relegate such pride inappropriately as prejudice. I dare say that no race is exempt from prejudice and blacks like all people can have their biases. But pride and prejudice are not the same thing at all. In fact without the conscious effort to give black children the supplement of self esteem to replace the steady diet sent through media and other methods of communication that subtly suggest inferences of inferiority, they live with a disadvantage that is difficult to overcome in early their ages. Our children desperately need to see people who look like them, who have done well and have been accepted by mainstream America so they will know that it is possible. Today we are seeing more black, brown, and female faces slipping through the glass ceiling to positions of prominence and finding there a new breed of more accepting people. We all need a conscious concerted effort to help showcase these persons to whom young Blacks, Latinos and girls can aspire. Still we who are in the village that cares for children of all races, must be careful to insure that we do not innocently or consciously malign innocent minds with insensitivity to the unique nuances of their needs.

Looking back at that moment with my sons, my regret at that moment was that I had not started sooner. My tears resulted from outrage and shame. I was outraged because the children who I loved were dealing with such hideous experiences so early; and I was ashamed that I was so busy struggling to feed them that I didn't think to equip them sooner for the harsh realities to which I naively thought they hadn’t experienced. I was wrong!

This lack of “self-love” and the negative self-image that accompanies it, is not limited to those children raised in the inner city. Though my wife and I were struggling financially at the time, my older children were never raised in the inner city and grew up in what would be ordinary neighborhoods of moderate- to middle-class income. No sagging pants, no boom boxes, and no gangs were prevalent at the time. Instead they attended what I thought were good schools, we had low crime, well manicured lawns, active PTA’s, youth programs – the true American dream. Believe it or not, it is easy to become almost invisible in even these otherwise wholesome environments. Their classrooms were predominantly white, the teachers, principals and staff were generally white, their sports and, cheerleading teams were primarily white, as were the dances and birthday parties they attended. Without a strong injection of self-worth and appreciation for their differences, these types of experiences can leave many children of color losing themselves, trying to fit in with others.

If one takes a look at many of the social ills that haunt the African-American community – the proliferation of gangs, teenage pregnancy, illiteracy, high school drop out rates, lower test scores – much of it can be tied back into a lack of self appreciation of who they are. To be sure, many of our families have been self-destructive, and some have been admittedly extremely dysfunctional. There is no question that we are not without some blame for many of the challenges we face today. The self-esteem issues are exasperated by absentee fathers, substance abuse, and many other circumstances that add to the conundrum of the lagging behind of our people. Yet, I shared my story to say that even when a black family overcomes those hurdles, and the father is at home, the family is stable, and the parents are involved with the school, etc., there is still an added invisible weight that saddles down the mind and cripples the soul of our children at incredibly early ages.

The baggage of being different is only crippling when the child is left to carry it without an intentional awareness of cultural diversity, sensitivity training and supervision in private and public schools to ensure that what they learn at school is education and not the devaluation that comes when those who make decisions do not look like the ones they decide about.

I am reminded of the young mainstream girls that we have seen and read about because of their struggle with bulimia and anorexia. They are bombarded with images everywhere you turn of rail thin women and are told, this is beautiful. Similarly, my children were bombarded with images of blonde, straight hair, blue-eyed children and were told this is beautiful. Their perception of normal was skewed based on their surroundings. The take away message is that if you are going to integrate the class, the staff, the pictures, the books, then all involved must reflect that commitment to ensure a healthy environment for those we seek to serve.

If all else fails, it must be the responsibility of the parents to instill the worth and value into our children as early and as often as possible. We must not shirk that responsibility. But if we can gain help from all people to make sure that no person is left dreading the skin they are in, we will really be the people that God meant for us to be. If people in general, and children in particular, are not exposed to their own culture, music, dance and food, all of us have to work to make sure that they experience that exposure. They must see images on the wall and around them that reflect their characteristics, and teach them to enjoy their unique appearance, language, skin tone or whatever it may be that sets them at risk of being a part.

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s words still ring soundly today, “Judge me on the content of my character and not the color of my skin.” Can a brother get a good Amen?

Editor’s Note: Bishop T.D. Jakes is a senior pastor of The Potter’s House. Over 10 years the church has grown from 50 families to more than 30,000 members with a nationally syndicated TV program.

Filed under: Bishop TD Jakes • Black in America
soundoff (557 Responses)
  1. Kathy Ferris

    Eloquently written. However, would you please elaborate on your sentence. ..I was sitting with both of them in the predominantly white environment of my home in West Virginia talking about things fathers discuss with their sons... in what context are you defining 'a predominately white environment in your home'? Thank you. KF

    July 23, 2008 at 2:56 pm |
  2. Jeff Conway

    Thank-you for this interesting perspective, Bishop Jakes. As a white person and father of young kids myself, I find this article very enlightening. An African-American woman that I worked with recently told me how she aknowledge to an African-American man who is a darker tone than she that she new he had a more difficult time getting a head in the work place than her, since she was "lighter."

    A good point was also made about the fact that success in life to a large degree comes down to how you feel about your-self and self-worth, which must me instilled at a young age. Bishop Jakes sons are lucky to have him and his wife as their parents.

    July 23, 2008 at 2:56 pm |
  3. Larry- Dallas

    Thank you Bishop for your insight into being black.

    I think you meant to explain to your sons on how to get rich in America

    Create your own church with you as the sole leader and keep as much of the money from collections as possible.

    Only in America

    July 23, 2008 at 2:56 pm |
  4. Nate

    Why is the label of black Americans still 'African American'? These are Americans like any other U.S. citizen, they simply have a different color of skin. Having pride in one's heritage is important, but you do not see those with great-great grandparents from Ireland calling themselves Irish Americans. The first step to unity is to consider each person the same on some level – we are all human, and anyone born in the United States is an American – not an African American or an Irish American or a German American. It's a minor thing, but how can one desire unity if one will not consider themself united with others.

    July 23, 2008 at 2:56 pm |
  5. N. Sue

    I'm an afro-caribbean female, dark-skinned, an immigrant, and I have to agree with JC from Los Angeles.

    "The black community needs to embrace the opportunities afforded all Americans and demand a culture of accountability, success and self respect; anything less and we will be having these same discussions 50 years from now," is what he writes.

    The biggest problem in the black community today isn't lack of respect from whites, it's the incessant whining and lack of respect among ourselves. Get over it. No matter how bad you have it, Americans– be they black or white or Latino, or whtever you may be–have it better than most others. If you don't believe that, dare take a trip around the world, like I have.

    July 23, 2008 at 2:55 pm |
  6. Michael in Washington, DC

    JC, you've missed the point. African Americans aren't 50% of any population anywhere in the states and continues to be become a smaller and smaller number. In this country were are indeed a minority no matter how "dated" it may seem to you.

    July 23, 2008 at 2:55 pm |
  7. Fred

    It's tough to teach your child the harsher realities of life no matter what your background or ethnicity. Teaching young children that there are people who will choose not to like them for no good reason is hard to explain.

    I'll be honest here, I don't think we're going to get this thing right until ALL OF US realize that there are no majorities or minorities. I realize I'm talking about something that will never happen, but that is the "Dream" isn't it?

    July 23, 2008 at 2:55 pm |
  8. Donna

    Can a brother get a good Amen??? That right there kind of defeats the entire message, ya know. How about if a white woman like myself used that term Can a sista get a good amen...I would be considered a racist...I think racism is a 2 way street and I think that Bishop Jakes message is great and sincere however, I have been the subject of more racism than I like to share because I am labeled a racist only because I am white. I see this everyday and everyday it sickens and disheartens me a little more. I see more and more black people pulling the racist card when things don't go there way and it is not right. We should not have 2 standards. It is wrong and someone needs to stand up to that.

    July 23, 2008 at 2:55 pm |
  9. Broderick - Michigan

    Amen Bishop- I commend you for your efforts to empower your sons for the imperfect world we live in. If only more parents/fathers would give their children this same gift, perhaps we would the society our leaders have pledged to us for generations. I do not know of any person on this planet that does not wish, either openly or secretly, at some point in their life they could change some part of themselves physically. God created us as we are for a reason and purpose. Keep going.

    July 23, 2008 at 2:55 pm |
  10. Fr. Billy Clark

    Bishop Jakes,
    Thank you for your heartfelt sharing. May God continue to bless your words of love and caring that you may continue to assist all God's Children that they may recognize love and choose the way of love. May God's peace be with you...and a big AMEN!

    July 23, 2008 at 2:54 pm |
  11. patrick

    Great story, I just hope that people can take this message and apply it to all situations where people are different. Whether people are gay, straight, poor, rich, black, white or brown this applies across the board.

    July 23, 2008 at 2:54 pm |
  12. Warren Grant

    As a white male growing up in Canada I have no experience and no commonality with the experience of blacks growing up in the racially heated environment of the United States. I haven't felt the pressure of being an obvious member of a minority group in the way that many (if not all) blacks evidently experience south of the border. As a child, I did experience the minor bias against those of a Polish background that was prevalent in the early 1960's but its hardly comparable.

    It is refreshing to see an increase in the general awareness of racial problems and discrimination in North America, and it was enlightening to read this article. I hope this trend continues, and I hope we see an increase in members of minorities who learn to be proud of their heritage and who can surmount any racial or cultural obstacles. We are all the same colour under our skin.

    July 23, 2008 at 2:54 pm |
  13. DB

    I disagree with JC-Los Angeles point about “knowing how things can be when you are a minority in a majority world” is a bit dated. White culture dominates this society. In spite of a place like LA having 140 nationalities, only 1 of those nationalities dominates every institution – from government to infrastructure to media and the sciences. Most of the country is NOT culturally diverse, and even in the places that are, there still is rampant segregation amongst where people live, work and worship.

    As a result of this, there is a pervasive ignorance of culture that looms large over this country. This ignorance leads to situations such as Sean Bell getting shot 50 times by officers who mistakenly think he had a weapon, to a Punjabi couple being discriminated against by getting lured into a sub-prime loan.

    This is effectively dealt with via communication like the reverend said. However, complacent people who typically don't have to worry about cultural issues should be the ones especially immersing themselves into situations where they have the opportunity to learn about others. This country would be better for it.

    July 23, 2008 at 2:54 pm |
  14. Carla

    Pastor Jakes,

    Wow, I have a very similar story. Yours brought a tear to my eye as I thought of your son and his very real reaction to the world ways. On that note I look forward to heaven where color really won't matter at all!! I am a white female and I have a child, Erika whose father is african american. He is a wonderful father to her though we never married. She is 21 now, but years ago when she was about 3 or 4 years old, we were shopping in a clothing store and Erika came up to me with a sad look and said "mommy, those 2 ladies are looking at me mean and talking about me". As I looked up, sure enough they were looking at Erika and myself still and I had to quickly move past them and on to addressing my little girls pain. How I responded (even being only in my early 20's then) would make all the difference to her and her self image. All I could think of then was "Honey, there are just some people in this world that are not very nice at all and those people were just not nice". Erika made other comments growing up along the same lines that she'd hear from other kids also. Today, she is very comfortable with her skin color and I attribute that to the way she was raised by both her father and I. Though in separate homes, she experienced both races/cultures (white & black), by two people who hold no predjuices towards any person because of color.

    July 23, 2008 at 2:53 pm |
  15. res45

    A'men pastor,God doesn't see the color of our skin,he see what 's in our hearts. Why should we be any different. Have a blessed day.

    July 23, 2008 at 2:52 pm |
  16. Geof Maguire

    Sir, I understand what you are saying and do not minimize your experience. However sooner or later the self pity and whining has to stop. We live in an America where Blacks command our military, control public and foreign policy and where a black man may shortly lead us all. Black America needs to move on, not keep nurturing the victim mentality. This must happen and not for the sake of white people but for black American themselves whose potential and confidence is confined boxed in by the perennial victim mentality.

    July 23, 2008 at 2:52 pm |
  17. Juan

    Thanks Bishop Jakes for this wonderful story. We also have to teach our children not to run away from racism but to face it and fight it. It is the only way that we can change the views of those that think people of different races are different or out of this world.

    Thanks again for all the words of encouragement that you always provide in your lectures, books and preaching. You are a great human being. God is always with you.

    July 23, 2008 at 2:51 pm |
  18. Michael W.

    What a shame your wisdom doesn't extend to people who are homosexual. Your words should apply to everyone's situation, but to you, they only apply to what you and your family, people of a particular skin color go through. When you can see that a person's sexual orientation is no more chosen than their skin color, then I'll congratulate you for your wise words.

    July 23, 2008 at 2:50 pm |
  19. ted

    The Whiteman is the most dangerous species on the planet

    July 23, 2008 at 2:49 pm |
  20. Audrey

    Thanks so for a very loving article. I agree on many of the points that you made, but I'm afraid I also have to agree with JC from Los Angeles, who stated "to focus on one group rather than a collective whole is a disservice to diversityand also the the black community needs to embrace the opportunities afforded all Americans and demand a culture of accountability, success and self respect."

    July 23, 2008 at 2:49 pm |
  21. Sandra Fountain

    This is what I would like to share with people of ALL colour!

    "It took me a long time not to judge myself through someone
    else's eyes."

    Sandra – Memphis TN

    July 23, 2008 at 2:49 pm |
  22. Jason

    AMEN... and thank you for including the issue of female body image along with this discussion. While there are special issues relating to people of color, I think that all people have to be given an idea of their worth as creations of God. Young girls are very vulnerable to the images that are displayed in the media and in our culture.

    July 23, 2008 at 2:49 pm |
  23. Prashant TX

    Mr. Jakes that was a great story but this is not only limited to color. I think we should teach our children to love themselves because if you do not love yourself you cannot love others.

    July 23, 2008 at 2:48 pm |
  24. Relle Boston

    JC Los Angeles.
    He is talking from a black perpective not from a hispanic one. He is trying to get understanding and from your comment you have none. Blacks were in-slaved. I think that seperates the two minority groups.
    Here we are trying to find our own identity to bring about a change in the black community and you get this stuff.

    I thank you Jakes and thank you for your thoughts as we will make a change and we will be a better people even though there are those who still wantt o knock us down.

    And I will add a good AMEN.

    July 23, 2008 at 2:48 pm |
  25. Mary

    Thank you for sharing this story. It has echoes today, with lifelong Democrats threatening not to vote for Obama because of his skin color. Just like your son, Obama is proud of who he is and his heritage. I pray for a country that embraces everyone because of the richness of our differences. Only then will we be able to achieve our full potenial as a nation.

    July 23, 2008 at 2:47 pm |
  26. Will

    I thank you for your wonderful article. I think one small way to gain an appreciation for one's self is to not use a term that conveys a lack of appreciation, and that is the N-word.

    Really, though, it is a question of what comes first, the lack of appreciation of one's self that causes one to use the N-word to refer to others of like race, or the use of the word that causes the lack of appreciation of one's self/race.

    Any thoughts?


    July 23, 2008 at 2:47 pm |
  27. Michael Melinchok -- Silver Spring, MD

    Amen brother! As a white man with two young children living in a diverse community, I agree with you completely. We (Americans) need to celebrate our differences AND our commonalities and treat each other as the brothers and sisters we truly are.

    July 23, 2008 at 2:46 pm |
  28. Brian

    When will we see a special about being Irish in America or Latino or Asian. This kind of black only victimization is ridiculous.

    July 23, 2008 at 2:46 pm |
  29. Monica Roumier

    I thoroughly agree with JC in Los Angeles! You hit it right on the nosey!

    July 23, 2008 at 2:45 pm |
  30. Tony P

    JC – from Los Angeles ... you can't be from Earth! Everybody doesn't have the same opportunities my friend. You've been watching too much Glenn Beck!

    To Bishop Jakes ... thanks Pastor for telling the "REAL" story!

    July 23, 2008 at 2:45 pm |
  31. Brad

    "The self-esteem issues are exasperated by absentee fathers, substance abuse, and many other circumstances that add to the conundrum of the lagging behind of our people. "

    "Exacerbated" is the correct word, not "exasperated".

    Nice editing there ....

    At least one black man is willing to admit his own accountability.

    July 23, 2008 at 2:43 pm |
  32. Kevin, NC

    Bishop Jakes,

    Historically I've not been one of your fans, but for this matter I must say I truly appreciate you bruh.

    God Bless


    July 23, 2008 at 2:43 pm |
  33. Henry Yong

    Bishop Jakes,

    Great message! Thanks for sharing.

    July 23, 2008 at 2:42 pm |
  34. Grace

    Thank you Bishop Jakes. I absolutely love your preaching and applaud you for sharing such a touching and sensitive story. I learn more every day in this life and pray to God my love for everyone is equal. Amen and Amen.

    July 23, 2008 at 2:42 pm |
  35. Jenifer

    Amen, brother, Amen.

    July 23, 2008 at 2:42 pm |
  36. Sol

    Not to nitpick, but when you don't have the facts, your perception can be incorrect. California is NOT > 50% latino. California has a 'no majority' where the majority (white) is less than 50%. JC, get the facts first.

    July 23, 2008 at 2:42 pm |
  37. Jim

    It is interesting that Mr. Jakes uses Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. famous quote, “Judge me on the content of my character and not the color of my skin.” My question to Mr. Jakes is why did he not apply this same standard to Pastor Jeremiah Wright and his racism. Mr. Jakes was silent.

    July 23, 2008 at 2:38 pm |
  38. Cryonbrian

    Get a grip Black people! Grow up! This talk is nothing new! Stop making excuses and go get a JOB!

    July 23, 2008 at 2:37 pm |
  39. Christopher

    Amen Bishop!

    This editorial shows us that we still haven't realized the dream that MLK spoke about... yet.

    But I have faith in this country and those who inhabit it. I believe, truly believe that racial equality will be a reality in my lifetime.

    July 23, 2008 at 2:36 pm |
  40. JC- Los Angeles

    I enjoy your commentary and believe many of your points are valid, however, your comment about "knowing how things can be when you are a minority in a majority world" is a bit dated.

    Living in Los Angeles, a city that is comprised of 140 nationalities, to focus on one race is to deny what our country has become.

    California has a population of more than 50% hispanics; I don't believe I have ever read one article where a non-hispanic has documented how it feels to be a minority in a majority world.

    Our nation's tapestry is multi-colored and getting brighter each day; to focus on one group rather than a collective whole is a disservice to diversity.

    The black community needs to embrace the opportunities afforded all Americans and demand a culture of accountability, success and self respect; anything less and we will be having these same discussions 50 years from now.

    July 23, 2008 at 1:47 pm |
  41. Rodney Walker, washington, dc

    Mr. Jakes, thanks so much for sharing that story, while reading your story tear came down my check. Please have a great and bless day

    July 23, 2008 at 1:43 pm |
  42. Steve

    Amen, very thoughtful, enlightening, inclusive piece.

    July 23, 2008 at 1:30 pm |
  43. Tom

    Thank you for sharing what must have been painful experience. As I parent, I cry with you. Kids always need to be reassured that they are special and created by God just the way God wants them to be. I think all parents go through this at one time or another. My parents went through it with me – I never fit in with everybody because I wore really thick glasses. My one son has a learning disability, so he feels isolated, the other one has freckles, a sibling was the shortest in the class – every single year. The list goes on and on. I don't think that raising your child to love his/herself is a racial issue at all. We all, as parents, need to do a better job at it so kids have self-worth and take care of themselves and each other....

    July 23, 2008 at 1:29 pm |
  44. Hannah Storm

    now that's some good preaching.....thanks for sharing Bishop Jakes.

    July 23, 2008 at 1:14 pm |
  45. Natasha-Houston,Texas

    Thanks Bishop for sharing.

    July 23, 2008 at 12:55 pm |
  46. Carolyn, Hanover Twp, PA

    Bishop Jakes, I watch you on Dr. Phil an listen to your wisdom. As a young mother I also witnessed how even children learned about the color of somone's skin. My young son wanted to invited "Sam" to his Birthday party and I told him that was fine. Chris to me that some of the other children said they couldn't come if Sam did because he had
    brown skin. Their parent's wouldn't let them come. Our children are
    born innocent why can't we let them grow up among each other that way with out the prejudices adults teach them. When Chris got older we moved to an area with much more diversity and he surrounded himself with many friends from diffent cultures. Color is only skin deep. Keep on teaching your love.

    July 23, 2008 at 12:52 pm |
  47. deborah, OH

    Bishop Jakes–Thank you for sharing such a wonderful memory. It must have been very painful too.
    Children have to be taught that being different has nothing to do with goodness or badness.-They are all unique little individuals, regardless of skin color or other 'difference'. Self-acceptance & self-love are hard lessons to teach. Parenting is such a .forgotten tool these days. It sounds like you did a wonderful job!

    July 23, 2008 at 12:21 pm |
  48. Kristen- Philadelphia, PA

    AMEN 🙂

    July 23, 2008 at 11:49 am |
  49. Will

    I remembered a similar conversation with my father. It was a painful conversation... but knowledge of burden can be helpful in the long run.

    July 23, 2008 at 11:47 am |
  50. Cindy

    Bishop Jakes,
    Thanks for joining us on the blog. I love your preaching! You are a great man of God and a great person.

    Yes we should all teach our kids to love themselves no matter what color they are or how they look. You can't rely on anyone else to make you happy. That starts within yourself. So we need to start getting people to love themselves from the time that they are small. Maybe then what others think won't matter as much and we can be our own person and not have to follow the herd to "fit in".


    July 23, 2008 at 11:42 am |
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